The bill was passed with 186 members of the 245-seat house voting in favour. Only one member voted against. Several smaller parties boycotted the vote.
The bill was introduced on Monday amid uproar from opponents, resulting in the suspension of seven MPs on Tuesday.
First proposed in 1996, the bill now has support from India’s main parties.
At present women make up just 10% of the lower house (Lok Sabha) of parliament, and significantly fewer in state assemblies.